The Next Wave of Jewish Feminism
Questions for an Unfinished Revolution
The movement to obtain equal rights and opportunities for women in Jewish life emerged in the 1960s. The Jewish feminist movement worked for changes in leadership (female rabbis and cantors), liturgy (including gender-equitable language and gender-neutral or female God imagery) and scholarship (the inclusion of Jewish women’s voices/history in the canon). Tamara Cohen’s article suggests some of the issues on the current Jewish feminist agenda. It is reprinted with permission from the January 2000 issue of Sh’ma, A Journal of Jewish Responsibility.
I didn't attend the First National Jewish Women's Conference in New York in 1973. My mother wanted to bring me, her two year‑old daughter, but the conference organizers asked her to either stay home with her baby or attend the conference alone. Although she resented the choice, she went to the conference without me.
Over the years, my two sisters and I have embraced a feminism we feel takes my mother's feminist thinking to the next step. So it is with a deep respect for her, and the feminism with which she raised me, that I voice the following, somewhat critical, observations and questions.
Is Jewish feminism about finding new images for God, ordaining women as rabbis, generating new midrash and developing new ritual? Or is it about becoming partners with women of color, protesting the human rights abuses in the West Bank, and demanding changes in an unfair economy?
The answer to both of these questions must be yes. Jewish feminists have made significant changes to the fabric of Judaism and the shape of the Jewish community. While we continue that work, we must also acknowledge with equal creativity and energy our responsibility to the broader questions of feminism, seeing other women's issues as our own.
How many Jewish feminists are managing their increasingly busy and over‑committed lives by relying on the labor of women of another class and race, women who can't afford good care for their own children? What is a community‑sponsored, feminist seder, if it is served on non‑recyclable plastic plates, harmful to the environment and manufactured by underpaid Third World women?
I want a Jewish feminism that lays claim both to the heritage of [Jewish socialist] Bundist women-as well as the women who wrote tekhines (Yiddish petitionary prayers); that acknowledges both the women of the Emma Lazarus Federation (secular American socialists) and the women of Ezrat Nashim (who lobbied for Conservative women's ordination). It’s time for Jewish feminists to refute the dichotomies of secular and religious, insisting rather that feminism is always political as well as spiritual. It's time to recognize that the liberation that is central to Jewish feminism is seriously compromised if our commitment to our own spiritual enrichment is not coupled with a commitment to societal change specifically aimed at improving the lives of less privileged women.
How much is the socialization of Jewish boys and girls changing? Are Jewish children being exposed tomultiple models of how to be Jewish men and women? Are school children still paired into model heterosexual families for model celebrations of shabbat? What do teacher's behaviors and ritual participation reflect about Jewish families and society? I want Jewish feminists to support children--including their own--as they explore their gender and sexual identities.
I want every feminist to recognize the connection between supporting the goals of Jewish feminism and supporting Jewish gays and lesbians. If we honestly value women as much as we value men, then our daughters can love whomever, as long as they are happy. These are feminist, not just gay and lesbian, issues. Ezrat Nashim demanded the right of all women to be Conservative rabbis, but only heterosexual women now have that right.
Finally, I want Jewish feminists to be creating lives for themselves that are more fulfilling, not more exhausting. This means that if women are going to prepare additional seder readings, then men will have to assume some of the traditionally female Pesach duties. It also means that we need to balance a Jewish feminism of the head with one of the body. Like all American women, Jewish feminists are deeply effected by society's messages about what we should look like. Are we raising our daughters and sons with healthy body images? Are we modeling a balanced life?
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