Hardened Hearts: Removing Free Will

The Bible records several problematic instances of God hardening human hearts, seemingly stripping them of free will.

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Excerpted and reprinted with permission from "Freedom, Repentance, and Hardening of the Hearts: Albo vs. Maimonides," published in Faith and Philosophy (1997, 14:4).

On several occasions in the Bible, God "hardens the heart" of individuals. 

"Victims" of divine hardenings include the Egyptian king Pharaoh (Exodus 4:21; 7:3; 9:12; 10:1, 20, 27; 11:10; 14:4, 8, 17, and arguably 14:5, 18), the Moabite king Sihon (Deuteronomy 2:30), and the army of Canaan in the time of Joshua (Joshua 11:20). Proverbs 21:1 informs us, indeed, that "the heart of a king is in the Lord's hands like streams of water; He will turn it to whatever He wants"; and without referring to hardening per se, the prophet Elijah insinuates that God has led the hearts of the sinning Israelites astray (I Kings 18:37).

Interfering With Free Will

To harden someone's heart is, apparently, to interfere in the person's motivational system so as to cause the person to act in a way different than he or she would have otherwise acted. Consequently, the most obvious problem posed by hardening of the hearts pertains to the loss of free will incurred by the hardened agent.

free will quizMost philosophers subscribe to the principle that, when an agent S interferes directly to affect agent V's motivational system in a way that does not involve rational persuasion--brainwashing, hypnosis and the like--such interference will normally preclude V's freely performing and bearing responsibility for acts that the intervention caused. It would seem, therefore, that, by hardening, God deprives certain people of a significant good, free will.

We may call this the "free will deprivation problem."

Is Free Will a Supreme Value?

One might retort that in Judaism free will is not as great a value as the "free will deprivation problem" and other theological stances, such as "free will theodicies” [attempts to explain human suffering], imply. For example, authoritative Jewish sources at times justify coercion to secure correct behavior; in fact, the biblical God tries to elicit obedience to His commands by promising rewards for compliance and threatening dire punishments for disobedience.

There are also doctrines in Jewish thought to the effect that having free choice is not as good a state as doing right automatically (e.g., Nachmanides, commentary to Genesis 2:9 and Deuteronomy 30:6). Hence the free will deprivation problem that we posed--"but isn't free will a significant good?"-‑rests on what some might regard as an exaggerated premise about the value of free will in Judaism.

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David Shatz

Dr. David Shatz is Professor of Philosophy at Yeshiva University.