The Life and Times of...uh...God

Author Jack Miles' Pulitzer Prize winning biography is just divine.

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"Surely this instruction which I enjoin upon you this day is not too baffling for you, nor is it beyond reach. It is not in the heavens that you should say, 'Who among us can go up to the heavens and get it for us and impart it to us, that we may observe it?' [Deuteronomy 30:11‑12]"

Later, however, an increasingly silent God deliberately surrounds Himself in mystery. Indeed, the emergence of the God who is part mystery carries beyond the end of the Hebrew Bible and is a critical aspect of early Christianity.

Since the mystery element is much more important in Christian than in Jewish theology, it is ironic, Miles observes, that we see the growth of taciturnity and mystery in God more clearly in the traditional Jewish ordering of the books of the Bible than in the Christian. And this is a good place to note one of the major strengths of God: A Biography, namely, Miles' care throughout in distinguishing between the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, two different arrangements of the same books which themselves reflect the collective personalities of the world's two highest religions.

The Christian Old Testament shifts the great prophetic collections—Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the twelve minor prophets—to the end, leaving in the middle what Miles calls "the books of silence:" Job, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther. Behind this altered arrangement lies, perhaps, the desire on the part of Christian redactors to create a greater sense of continuity between the Old Testament and the New, which is itself a book of speech, if only by Jesus.

The bulk of God: A Biography is devoted to delineating the variety of roles in which the Bible presents God: creator, destroyer, creator‑destroyer, friend of the family, liberator, lawgiver, father, conqueror, executioner, arbiter, restorer, counselor, Holy One, sleeper, recluse, and finally old man, wearied by time. And God is also shown by Miles in His various moods: exhilarated and troubled, puzzled and puzzling, a mere bystander, even altogether absent. Throughout, Miles examines the questions that are raised by the texts: What is it like to be God? Does God fail? Can and does God love? Then, in a final chapter entitled "Does God Lose Interest?," he offers some general reflections.

In essence, Miles sees the biblical God as a divided being, a case of schizophrenia. In polytheistic religions, the various aspects of divinity are often played by different gods, each of whom embodies a single salient characteristic. In monotheism, by contrast, God has to play all the parts. So He is, or appears to be, a mass of opposites: tender and ruthless, the all-powerful Lord of heaven but also the sorrowing friend of the poor, and so on.

Miles views the Bible as a tragedy, rather like Hamlet, the play which inspired him to write this book. Hamlet is trapped within himself. He tries to be at once a ruthless avenger and a scrupulous moralist who argues through all his actions before performing them. In the end, however, he does nothing, and falls victim himself. So it is with the Bible: God's character, being all‑inclusive of divinity, is a contradictory one, and He Himself ends by being trapped within its contradictions.

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Paul Johnson

Paul Johnson is the author of A History of Christianity, A History of the Jews, and Modern Times, among many other books.