The so-called New Wave of Israeli fiction began in the late 1950s. Writers such as Amos Oz, A.B. Yehoshua, and Aharon Appelfeld, drifted from the realist, Zionist tradition of early Israeli literature. They were heavily influenced by the surrealism of writers like Agnon and Franz Kafka. They also began to question many of the nationalistic leanings of the Generation of 1948, as the earlier writers were known (1948 being the year of Israeli independence). Tired from the War of Independence, the Sinai campaign, and ultimately the wars of 1967 and 1973, they voiced their concerns about Zionism and Israel's attitude toward its Arab neighbors.
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