Expulsion and Readmission

Medieval European Jewry repeatedly faced banishment for both economic and religious reasons.

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Even though the root causes of these expulsions differed, the end result was the same: rulers profited, at least in the short run, from the expulsion of the Jews. Jewish merchants, officially or not, soon returned to England and France, where their financial contributions proved invaluable to the economy. In Spain, where the expulsion was for religious reasons, the Jews were not permitted to return.  After 1492, Spain was officially a Christian nation with no religious minorities.

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Joshua Levy is a doctoral candidate in the department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies at New York University, studying medieval Jewish history. His dissertation, "Sefer Milhamot Hashem, Chapter Eleven: The Earliest Jewish Critique of the New Testament," is an examination of medieval Jewish criticisms of the Gospel of Matthew.