From his day until the present, Rashi has been the most beloved of all medieval teachers.

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This article is reprinted with permission from The Jewish Religion: A Companion, published by Oxford University Press.

The Model Ashkenazic Life

Foremost French commentator, called Rashi after the initial letters of his name, Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhak (1040-1105). Rashi was born in Troyes in northern France and spent most of his life in this city. In his youth Rashi studied for a number of years at the great center of Jewish learning, Mayyence in Germany, where his teachers, to whom he refers repeatedly in his commentaries, were the disciples of Rabbenu Gershom of Mayyence, the spiritual father of Ashkenazi Jewry.

Returning to his native city, Rashi taught without a fee a number of chosen disciples, earning his living by means of the vineyards he owned. The Rabbinic injunction not to receive payment for teaching the Torah was rigorously adhered to in the Middle Ages.

Rashi’s daughters married scholars, members of whose family established the school of the Tosafot glosses to the Talmud. [Tosafot, lit. “additions,” were glosses added to Rashi’s commentary by Talmudic scholars in France (the tosafists) in the 12-14th centuries.]  Rashi’s two most famous grandsons were Rashbam and his younger brother, Rabbenu Tam.

Humash with Rashi

Rashi’s undying fame rests on his commentaries to the Bible and the Babylonian Talmud, printed together with the text in practically all editions. Rashi’s commentary to the Humash (Pentateuch) was first printed in Reggio, Italy, in 1475 and seems to have been the first Hebrew book ever printed. Over the generations this commentary has been used as the prime guide, so that the term “Humash and Rashi” became part of the universal Jewish vocabulary. Rashi was jocularly called the “brother” of the Humash.

Rashi’s method is to state what he considers to be the plain meaning (peshat) of the text and also homiletical comments (derash) culled from the Midrash. For instance, in Rashi’s comment on the first word of Genesis, bereshit, “In the beginning,” he notes that on the plain meaning this word, in the construct state (Rashi was a gifted grammarian), should be rendered as “in the beginning of,” that is, the word is connected with what follows in the verse: “In the beginning of God’s creation of the heaven and the earth, the earth was…” But he also quotes a Midrashic comment according to which bereshit means “because of the beginning,” both the Torah and Israel being referred to in Scripture as “The beginning,” so that the verse states, homiletically, that “God has created the world because of the Torah and because of Israel;” in other words, God’s ultimate purpose in creation was for Israel to receive the Torah.

Rashi's Intellectual Horizon

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Rabbi Louis Jacobs

Rabbi Dr. Louis Jacobs (1920-2006) was a Masorti rabbi, the first leader of Masorti Judaism (also known as Conservative Judaism) in the United Kingdom, and a leading writer and thinker on Judaism.