Postcards From the Dreyfus Affair
Opinions about Alfred Dreyfus--and modern anti-Semitism--were expressed through the new print media of the day.
The Dreyfus Affair happened at the same time as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were published, translated, and disseminated all over the world thanks to the same inexpensive techniques of mass production that facilitated the rise of postcards. This forgery in the form of a 20-chapter pamphlet claimed to be the minutes of secret meetings held by Jewish wise men plotting to take control of the world. Alfred Dreyfus was seen as living proof that the Jewish conspiracy was taking place, since he was working "underground" for "secret powers" that wanted to subvert France.
Anti-Semitic postcards showed Dreyfus wearing the pointed helmet of the German army and speaking with a thick German accent. Others emphasized Jewish greed, with Dreyfus counting his money or looking for other paid espionage opportunities. Other illustrations borrowed from the century-old myth of the Wandering Jew and dressed Dreyfus in rags, his meager belongings stacked on his back.
The postcard above represents a (fake) monument to the glory of Dreyfus, as if erected by Germany as a sign of "eternal gratefulness" (so says the inscription on the pedestal). We see Dreyfus with a crooked nose, in a German uniform (with the eagle), next to his broken sword (a sign of treachery), sitting on stacks of money while reading the "bordereau," the paper that caused the scandal.
But there were also favorable postcards of Dreyfus, and none of them mentioned that he was Jewish. On the contrary, they emphasized his loyalty and innocence, and depicted him in all his "Frenchness"--an honest man with values and responsibilities, serving his country with dignity. In favorable cards, Dreyfus was always in French military uniform. He was often surrounded with French Republican symbols (the motto "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity", Republican hat and French flag) and was often in the company of a female personification of justice holding a sword or a scale (see below).
Selecting a Dreyfus postcard and sending it to an individual was already a political statement. In many cases, the sender would add a few words commenting on the image of the postcard: an expression of hope or encouragement for Dreyfus, or an anti-Semitic slogan, for example. Often, however, the handwritten text had no relation to the image, and sometimes even clashed. Cards show Dreyfus in shackles, being tortured on Devil's Island, with notes about the weather conditions at a beach resort or excitement about an upcoming tea party.
As much as the sender made a statement in selecting a Dreyfus postcard, the recipient was forced to take a position as well. Whether in agreement or disagreement nobody could remain indifferent to such a political drama. Even when the Affair didn't make front-page news, it remained background noise that occupied public discourse.
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