The 13 Attributes of Mercy
Asking God for Forgiveness.
What are the 13 Attributes?
The 13 Attributes of Mercy, according to the generally accepted opinions of Rabbenu Tam and Abudraham, are as follows:
- The Lord! (Adonai)--God is merciful before a person sins! Even though aware that future evil lies dormant within him.
- The Lord! (Adonai)--God is merciful after the sinner has gone astray.
- God (El)--a name that denotes power as ruler over nature and humankind, indicating that God's mercy sometimes surpasses even the degree indicated by this name.
- Compassionate (rahum)--God is filled with loving sympathy for human frailty does not put people into situations of extreme temptation, and eases the punishment of the guilty.
- Gracious (v'hanun)--God shows mercy even to those who do not deserve it consoling the afflicted and raising up the oppressed.
- Slow to anger (ereh apayim)--God gives the sinner ample time to reflect, improve, and repent.
- Abundant in Kindness (v'rav hesed)--God is kind toward those who lack personal merits, providing more gifts and blessings than they deserve; if one's personal behavior is evenly balanced between virtue and sin, God tips the scales of justice toward the good.
- Truth (v'emet)--God never reneges on His word to reward those who serve Him.
- Preserver of kindness for thousands of generations (notzeir hesed la-alafim)--God remembers the deeds of the righteous for thebenefit of their less virtuous generations of offspring (thus we constantly invoke the merit of the Patriarchs).
- Forgiver of iniquity (nosei avon)--God forgives intentional sin resulting from an evil disposition, as long as the sinner repents.
- Forgiver of willful sin (pesha)--God allows even those who commit a sin with the malicious intent of rebelling against and angering Him the opportunity to repent.
- Forgiver of error (v'hata'ah)--God forgives a sin committed out of carelessness, thoughtlessness, or apathy.
- Who cleanses (v'nakeh)--God is merciful, gracious, and forgiving, wiping away the sins of those who truly repent; however, if one does not repent, God does not cleanse.
The kabbalists introduced the custom of also reciting the 13 Attributes of Mercy before taking the Torah from the ark during the three pilgrimage festivals of Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot. This was followed by a silent prayer beginning, "Master of the universe, fulfill my heartfelt requests for good," demonstrating an understanding that all too often one's personal goals are not for his or her benefit. Like all personal supplications, the 13 Attributes of Mercy are not recited on the Sabbath or on festivals that fall on the Sabbath.
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