Why Immerse in the Mikveh?
Immersion in the mikveh (sometimes pronounced mikvah) actualizes the transition between the convert's old identity and his or her new one as a Jew.
There is one exception to this general practice of placing the blessing before the
mitzvah--the immersion of a convert. The convert needs to recite the blessing after the immersion, not before. The reason is simple: One cannot declare "God commanded us"
if one is not commanded by God because he or she is not Jewish. The convert becomes a Jew only after the immersion is completed.
After the blessing, the convert immerses twice more and then leaves the mikveh.
A second blessing is required by most, but not all, authorities. It is called she'hecheyanu, and with it a person thanks God that He has enabled him to live to experience the greatness of this moment.
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