Jewish Parent/Child Relationships

A relationship that's commanded to be respectful.

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These laws generated much discussion among the rabbis of the Mishnah and Talmud. Much of their wisdom is found in the talmudic tractate Kiddushin, surrounding the following teaching: "All the mitzvot of the son [incumbent] upon the father--men are obligated and women are exempt. And all the mitzvot of the father [incumbent] upon the son--both men and women are obligated" (Mishnah Kiddushin 1:7, Babylonian Talmud Kiddushin 29a).

The ensuing discussion (continuing in the Talmud until 32a) contains definitions of these two categories, explanations of their gender distinctions (e.g.mothers cannot be obligated to do for sons mitzvot which they are not commanded to do themselves), biblical derivations, stories and role-models regarding performance of the commandments. Fathers are obligated to circumcise, redeem, teach Torah to, acquire a wife for, and teach a craft to sons.

Both sons and daughters must honor mothers and fathers by providing them with food and drink, clothing and covering them, and providing for their mobility. Children show reverence by not standing or sitting in a parent's place, contradicting his/her words, or opposing a parent in a dispute.

Spiritual Aspects of Parenthood

Along with these practical concerns, we also are provided a deeply spiritual understanding of the bond between child and parent. After connecting biblical verses pertaining to honor of parents and honor of God, the talmudic sages offer the following statement: "There are three partners in a person--the Holy One of Blessing, one's father, and one's mother. The Holy One of Blessing said [to the ones who honor their parents], 'I rest over them as if I dwelled among them and they honored me.' " Parents are seen as partners in God's creation of each human being; therefore, to honor one's parents is to honor God. Similarly, to display disregard, disrespect, or violence toward one's parents is to do so to God.

The place of parent as God's representative is further emphasized through the mitzvah to teach one's children Torah--God's word. Adoptive, step-, and foster parents are included in this sacred relationship--"He who brings up a child is to be called its father, not he who gave birth" (Shemot Rabbah 46:5 and elsewhere)—although the mutual legal obligations are not, strictly speaking, identical. Parents offering the traditional Friday night blessing to their children do so as God's emissaries.

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