Olam Katan

The human body as a microcosm of the world

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As the final step in the creation of humanity, according to the biblical account, God breathes into Adam the divine breath and, with this breath, brings the first human being to life. From this moment forward, the understanding of the human being as imbued with divinity permeates virtually all of Jewish thought. As might be expected, as human writers contemplated the notion of the human being created in the image of God, they likewise envisioned God in the image of the human.

 

Olam Katan in Rabbinic Literature

Rabbinic literature describes the human being as an olam katan--a microcosm of the world. Some texts even link each part of the human body to a part of the natural world. According to one midrash (commentary):human body

"The rabbis taught: The creation of the world was like the creation of humanity, for everything that God created in the world, God created in the human being. The heavens are the head of humankind, the sun and the moon are the human eyes, the stars are the hair on the human head" (Otzar haMidrashim, Olam Katan 406).

In creating a one-to-one correspondence between the elements of the world and the features of the human body, this midrash rewrites the entire story of creation as the story of the creation of humanity. Adam and Eve are no longer simply the final products of creation, but are themselves the physical manifestations of creation in its entirety. The contemplation of the human body, then, can be a means of contemplating the world of divine creation. In the words of Ibn Ezra, a medieval biblical commentator, "One who knows the secret of the human soul, and the structure of the human body is able to understand something of the upper worlds, for the human being is in the image of a small world" (comment to Exodus 25:40).

The Body, The World & The Temple

If the human being is an olam katan--a small world, then the mikdash, the tabernacle through which ancient Jews offered sacrifices to God, becomes an olam emtzai--an in-between world, which acted as a sort of intercessor between the realms of the human and of the divine. As in descriptions of the human body, the midrash often suggests a one-to-one correspondence between parts of the mikdash, or later, the Temple in Jerusalem, and the created world.

Explaining the tri-part relationship between the human being, the Temple and the created universe, one midrash describes God as creating the world in the image of the human being, and beginning from the Temple:

"When God came to create the world, God created it in the same way that a human fetus is created. Just as a human fetus begins in the navel and pushes out in one direction and the other, to all four sides, similarly, God began creating the world from the foundation stone of the Temple, and from there founded the world" (Tanhuma, Pekudei 3).

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Rabbi Jill Jacobs

Rabbi Jill Jacobs is the Executive Director of Rabbis for Human Rights-North America. She previously served as the Rabbi-in-Residence for the Jewish Funds for Justice.