Synagogue Layout

An introduction to the parts that make up a synagogue sanctuary.

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1. keter or atarah: crown of silver on top of the Torah; this emphasizes that the "Torah is a crown for Israel."

2. rimmonim:  finials--separate decorative objects adorning the tops of the rollers.

3. tas: breastplate or silver shield hanging over the front of the Torah (reminiscent of the breastplate of the high priest in the Temple).

4. yad: a metal or wooden pointer used by the Torah reader to help him/her keep the place as s/he reads from the scroll (it is not permissible to touch the Torah--i.e., the parchment--itself with one's hand).

These objects can be very ornate and come in many different styles. Since Sephardic Jews keep their Torah inside a wooden case, often covered with silver, they do not use a cloth cover. Interestingly enough, they also read from the Torah without removing it from this case.

If all these decorative coverings were removed, we would find the sash or buckle that keeps the Torah rollers clasped together tightly. It, too, is often decorated with elaborate care. if this sash were removed, we could unroll the Torah scroll.

The Torah is handwritten by a trained scribe on parchment made from a kosher animal. The Torah has to be written with no mistakes; the letters must be clear, the writing must not be faded. if there is something wrong with the Torah it cannot be used until it is re­paired by a scribe….

Where the Leaders Stand

In old-style traditional shuls, the ark is not set on a stage, though in most of the newer shuls it is. Similarly in some traditional shuls the amud--where the hazzan [prayer leader] davens [prays]--is flat on the ground.…  However, in many shuls today there is a stage in the front of the room on which there is the ark, the desk from which the hazzan prays (often facing the congregation), the place from where the Torah is read (often the same as the hazzan's desk), chairs for the rabbi, president, other shul officers, and a stand from which the rabbi speaks. (It is customary for the bar/bat mitzvah to sit up front also.) In more traditional shuls there is a stage which holds the ark, a stand from which the rabbi speaks, chairs for the rabbi, etc. Somewhere at the base of the stage is an amud, which faces the ark.

In the middle of these traditional shuls there is a bimah--a platform holding a reader's table facing the ark. This table is used for reading the Torah and provides a central place from which the hazzan can occasionally pray. Wherever the reading table is, whether in front or middle, it is covered by a mappah--embroidered cloth--so the Torah does not rest on plain wood while being read.

The bimah might also have holders for the Torah and crown ornaments, etc. In the less traditional shuls similar objects will be near the

reader's desk on the podium. There are all sorts of in-between geographic positions, based on the traditions of the shul. At one time [and today in many Orthodox synagogues] the Torah was read from the middle of the shul so that people could hear it wherever they were seated. The hazzan would pray at the front to be near ark~the symbol of God's presence in the synagogue. Recent innovations such as the microphone [used only in liberal shuls, as traditional Jewish law prevents its use on Shabbat and festivals] have changed the way some synagogues are built. Also, some synagogues have turned the hazzan and/or Torah reader around to face the congregation rather than the ark.

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Rabbi Michael Strassfeld

Michael Strassfeld is the rabbi of the Society for the Advancement of Judaism, a Reconstructionist synagogue in Manhattan, co-author of The First Jewish Catalog, The Second Jewish Catalog, A Night of Questions: A Passover Haggadah, and author of The Jewish Holidays: A Guide and Commentary.

Sharon M. Strassfeld is co-author of the Jewish Catalog series.