Making Our Communities Inclusive

Everyone counts in a Jewish community.

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Reprinted with permission from The Torah: A Women’s Commentary, edited by Tamara Cohn Eskenazi and Andrea L. Weiss (New York: URJ Press and Women of Reform Judaism, 2008).

There is power in taking a census. When God commands Moses to do so at the beginning of Parashat B'midbar, only male Israelites over the age of 20 who are able to bear arms are considered. In the text, Moses is told to tally up kol adat b'nei yisrael, literally "the whole community of the Children of Israel." But do able-bodied males over 20 years old represent the whole community? While adat is often translated as "community," it can also refer to an "assembly, band, company, or faction," hence only one segment of the larger population. This nuance allows us to recognize all who are not counted: women, minors, the elderly, and the physically, mentally, or emotionally challenged.
The Torah: A Women's Commentary
In Torah, these people are usually missing from numerations as well as narrations. Those who are counted have a special worth to the society, while those who are not may be considered less valuable and are, therefore, less visible.

There is also danger in taking a census. This parashah is all about enumerating people, as the English name of the book, "Numbers," suggests. However, the Talmud asserts that "it is forbidden to count [the nation of] Israel even for the sake of a commandment ... [because] whoever counts Israel transgresses a prohibition, as it is written, 'The number of the children of Israel shall be like the sands of the sea, not to be measured' (Hosea 2:1)" (BT Yoma 22b).

Rashi explains that we must count something each person gives (like the half-shekel) rather than count actual people, because then "there will not be a plague among them, for the evil eye can affect that which is counted--and a plague may come upon them as we found in the days of David" (Rashi on Exodus 30:1). Is Rashi merely superstitious, or is he suggesting that it is dangerous to trivialize a person's essence? His comment teaches us that we must value each human as one who is made b'tzelem Elohim; in God's image (Genesis 1:27). A number can measure whether an army has enough people, but it can never measure the worth of the individual people in that army.

A Contemporary Jewish Census

Today, American society is obsessed with numbers, censuses, and demographic studies. Now when we calculate our Temple membership, for instance, we include everybody: the women and the men, the young and the old, the "typical" and the challenged. We can look at sum totals, categories, and sub-categories of these studies; and while they provide valuable information, they still may not show us who or what really counts. Can we say that all people matter when our Jewish institutions are not accessible to every individual?

Taking the synagogue as an example, do we value each person when a member in a wheelchair cannot come up to the Ark to take the Torah? Do we include everyone in worship services when we do not offer large-print prayer books or when we do not provide hearing aids to those who need them? Do we validate those with different learning styles and abilities when we hire inexperienced educators for our Religious School classes? If we compare our raw data with the facts within the synagogue walls, who really matters-the ones who are counted, or the ones for whom we take extra measures? While numbers may be essential, they do not represent the sum total of what is truly important. But what does?

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Cantor Rachel Stock Spilker has served as Cantor at Mount Zion Temple in St. Paul Minnesota since 1997, followering her position as Assistant Cantor at COngregation Rodeph Sholom in New York CIty.