Pirkei Avot- Ethics of the Fathers, Chapter 6

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·       The mouth of the ass (Numbers 22:28);

·       The rainbow;

·       The manna;

·       Aaron's staff;

·       The Shamir, writing;

·       The inscription on the tablets of the Ten Commandments;

·       The tablets themselves.

Some also include the evil spirits, the grave of Moses, the ram of Abraham; and others add the original tongs, for tongs must be made with tongs.

10. Seven marks characterize the clod and seven the wise man. The wise man does not speak before one who is greater than he in wisdom and he does not break in upon the speech of his fellow. He is not hasty to answer. He asks what is relevant and answers according to the Halakah. He speaks on the first point first and on the last point last. Where he has heard no tradition he says, "I have not heard"; and he agrees to what is true. The opposites of these attributes are the marks of the clod.

11. Seven kinds of punishment come upon the world for seven classes of transgression. If some give tithe and some do not give tithe, there comes famine from drought. Some hunger while some have a sufficiency.

When all resolve not to give tithes there comes famine from tumult and drought.

And if they will not set apart dough offerings (Numbers 15:20) there comes an all-consuming famine.

Pestilence comes upon the world because of crimes deserving the death penalties enjoined in the Torah that are not brought before the court; and because of the transgressions of the Torahs of the seventh year produce (Leviticus 25:1-7).

The sword comes upon the world because of the delaying of justice and the perverting of justice; and because of those that teach Torah not according to the halakhah.

Evil beasts come upon the world because of false swearing and the profaning of the name.

Exile comes upon the world because of idolatry and incest and the shedding of blood; and because of neglect to give release to the soil during the sabbatical year.

12. At four periods pestilence increases: In the fourth year and the seventh year and in the year after the seventh year, and at the end of the Feast of Tabernacles every year.

"In the fourth year"--because of neglect of the Poorman's Tithe in the third year (Deuteronomy 14:28-30).

"In the seventh year"--because of neglect of the Poorman's Tithe in the sixth year.

"In the year after the seventh year"--because of transgressing the Torahs of the seventh year produce.

"At the end of the Feast of Tabernacles every year"--because of robbing the poor of the harvest gifts that are their due.

13. There are four types among men:

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